C4 and Schizophrenia

When I hear “C4” I immediately think of the television series “Lost” and explosive material. C4 is also the shortened name of Complement component 4- one of a group of proteins that work together to make the immune system.  The C4 gene that codes for this protein is on Chromosome 6, and everyone has different variations in this gene, referred to alleles. Researchers from the Broad Institute, Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital, recently published a study with a hypothesis that a key cause of schizophrenia involves different alleles of this gene. The researchers noted that people who had schizophrenia were more likely to have a certain variation that promotes neural “pruning.”

Pruning is part of normal brain development during childhood, and especially during adolescence. Pruning is the process where synapses in the brain are eliminated. It is believed that the purpose of synaptic pruning is to remove unnecessary neuronal structures from the brain; as the human brain develops, the need to understand more complex structures becomes much more pertinent, and simpler associations formed at childhood are thought to be replaced by complex structures.

It may be that different alleles cause different amounts of pruning. Perhaps less pruning, which could lead to too much information being retained, could be a risk factor for mental health.  This could be one of the factors contributing to schizophrenia- there are likely many genetic and environmental factors. More knowledge of these mechanisms may be helpful in creating or refining treatment.

Here is the link to the study’s abstract:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v530/n7589/full/nature16549.html#access

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