Microbiome and Major Depression (i.e. Bacteria and Mood)

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Embryos develop from a small ball of cells to a flat sheet of cells. This sheet rolls up into a tube. One end of the tube becomes the brain, the other end becomes the digestive tract.

There is communication along this brain-gut axis via nerves, hormones and the immune system (via the blood). And I’m probably not the only person who asked out loud for my stomach to stop growling, so there’s a cognitive connection too :).

There is some evidence that our intestinal micro biota, the bacteria that we harbor that aids in digestion, actually communicates with our brain via the immune system. Scientists are also investigating the hypothesis that modification of microbial ecology, for example by supplements containing microbial species (probiotics), may be used therapeutically to modify stress responses and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

A recent study from the Netherlands reported the first evidence that the intake of probiotics may help reduce negative thoughts associated with sad mood and suggest that probiotics supplementation warrants further research as a potential preventive strategy for depression.

The study was small, 40 people total for cases and controls, but it certainly works as a pilot study for more research.

The study was published with open access- you can read it here:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889159115000884

This also adds to the evidence that chocolate is good for us! Also, probiotics do not have to be taken as supplements. Besides chocolate, probiotics are found in fermented foods such as kim chi, and in yogurt.

http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/features/what-are-probiotics

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23andMe Ordered by FDA to Stop Marketing Genetic Tests

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I’ve been on the fence about 23andMe’s personalized genetic tests.I like that it’s a cheap way to access your own DNA- which many of us may never have the opportunity to do. On the other hand, many of the gene allele interpretations are based on very small research studies that may not apply to the general population. The test has risk predictors for mental health conditions like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and alcholism. I have looked at the studies that 23andMe bases their intrepretations on, and I find them lacking. I would not recommend that anyone make decisions on treatment, medication, or personal life decisions such as having children, on such results.

23andMe is backed by Google, so obviously there is a lot of money behind the company. I think it is very important that the FDA takes this stand, and demonstrates to the American public that profit has to take a backseat to safety.

Alberto Gutierrez, director of the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health, said in a letter to the company made public on Monday that 23andMe had failed to address concerns raised on multiple occasions since the agency began working with it on compliance in July 2009. He commented that the the FDA does not have any assurance that the firm has analytically or clinically validated the tests for its intended uses.

23andMe responded  “We recognize that we have not met the FDA’s expectations regarding timeline and communication regarding our submission,” the company said in a statement. “Our relationship with the FDA is extremely important to us and we are committed to fully engaging with them to address their concerns.”

23andMe has plans to start markeing to the public via televison. As far as I can see from the report, they will not be able to do this immediately.

Here is a link to more information:

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/25/genetics-23andme-fda-marketing-pgs-screening

 

Can We Predict Who Will Attempt Suicide?

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Scientists at the Indiana University School of Medicine are looking to answer this question by analyzing proteins in the blood of patients who have mood disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder.  They looked at the amount of these proteins in the blood when the person was in a suicidal state vs. a non-suicidal state. A significant difference in expression was found for proteins coded for by the genes SAT1, PTEN, MARCKS and MAP3K3.  SAT1 is involved in the Omega-3 signaling pathway. MARCKS is involved in sleep–wake cycles, as well as mood regulation. PTEN is involved in regulation of the cell cycle and MAP3K3 directly regulates the stress-activated protein kinase SAPK.

Their conclusion was that “suicidality may be underlined, at least in part, by biological mechanisms related to stress, inflammation and apoptosis.” Apoptosis is the natural programmed cycle of cell death. The researchers wrote “our results have implications for the understanding of suicide, as well as for the development of objective laboratory tests and tools to track suicidal risk and response to treatment.” At some point this information could be used to predict and differentiate future and past hospitalizations due to suicidality in patients with bipolar disorder and psychosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder).

 

The link to the complete article is here:

http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/mp201395a.html

High cost of drugs getting you down?

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Did you know that there’s now an injectable form of Abilify that lasts for about a month?  Did you know that if you don’t have insurance it costs $1000 per injection?

Wow.

I went to the meeting of the San Francisco chapter of NAMI (National Alliance on Mental Illness) last night for a discussion about medication.  Dr. Ralph Fenn was on hand to answer questions and provide information.  He gave us two great websites to check out

This site compares costs of drugs so you can find the lowest price:

http://www.prescriptiondiscount123.com/check-discount-drug-cost

This site has programs that can assist if you need medication but can’t afford it:

http://www.needymeds.org/indices/pap.htm

For patient assistance programs you generally need to make less than $28,000 a year, which I know is hard to live on in San Francisco, but It doesn’t require that you be on MediCal or MediCare. Check it out.

On a genetic side note: I asked Dr. Fenn if he thought genetic testing for drug response was appropriate.  He agreed and said if he were the patient he would even consider paying out of pocket for it.

Photo:

© Alexey Lisovoy | Dreamstime Stock Photos